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Alexander, Monica. 2006. “Triptych in a Time of War.” Publications of the Modern Language Association 121, no.5: 1593–95.

Alexander, Monica. 2009. Poetics of Dislocation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

al-Jubouri, Amal. 2001. “Enheduanna and Goethe.” Translated by Salih J. Altoma. In The Poetry of Arab Women: A Contemporary Anthology, edited by Nathalie Handal. Northampton, Mass.: Interlink Group Publishing.

al-Jubouri, Amal. 2000. “Enheduanna.” Translated by Herbert Mason. Banipal 8: 54.

al-Jubouri, Amal. 2003. “Enheduanna.” Translated by Salih J. Altoma. World Literature Today 77, no. 3: 40.

Attinger, Pascal. 1993. Eléments du linguistique sumérienne: la construction de du11/e/di “dire.” Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 160. Göttingen, Vanendhoeck & Ruprecht.

Attinger, Pascal. 2019. “Innana B (Ninmešara) (4.7.2)” Webpage, available at:

Bahrani, Zainab. 2001. Women of Babylon: Gender and Representation in Mesopotamia. London: Routledge.

Barnstone, Aliki, and Willis Barnstone, eds. 1992. A Book of Women Poets from Antiquity to Now. Revised edition. New York: Schocken.

Beecroft, Alexander. 2020. “Beginnings: A World History of Authorship.” In World Authorship, edited by Tobias Boes, Rebecca Braun, and Emily Spiers, 18–29. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Binkley, Roberta A. 2004. “The Rhetoric of Origins and the Other: Reading the Ancient Figure of Enheduanna.” In Rhetoric Before and Beyond the Greeks, edited by Carol Lipson and Roberta A. Binkley, 47–64. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Black, Jeremy A. 2002. “En-ḫedu-ana Not the Composer of The Temple Hymns.Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires 2002, no. 1: 2–4, no. 4.

Black, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor; and Zólyomi, Gábor. 2004. The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Black, Jeremy A.; Green, Anthony. 1992. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. London: British Museum Press.

Boddy, Kaira. 2020. The Composition and Tradition of Erimḫuš. Cuneiform Monographs 22. Leiden: Brill.

Civil, Miguel. 1980. “Les limites de l’information textuelle.” In L’Archéologie de l’Iraq: Du début de l’époque néolithique à 333 avant notre ère, edited by Marie-Thérèse Barrelet, 225–32. Colloques internationaux du CNRS 580. Paris: Éditions du CNRS.

Crisostomo, C. Jay. 2016. “Writing Sumerian, Creating Texts: Reflections on Text-Building Practices in Old Babylonian Schools.” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 15, no. 2: 121–42.

Dalglish, Cass. 2008. Humming the Blues. Corvallis: Calyx Books.

Delnero, Paul. 2006. “Variation in Sumerian Literary Compositions: A Case Study Based on the Decad.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Available at:

Delnero, Paul. 2012. “Memorization and the Transmission of Sumerian Literary Compositions.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 71, no. 2: 189–208.

Delnero, Paul. 2016. “Literature and Identity in Mesopotamia During the Old Babylonian Period.” In Problems of Canonicity and Identity Formation in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, edited by Kim Ryholt and Gojko Barjamovic, 19–50. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications 43. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.

Delnero, Paul. 2020 How to Do Things with Tears: Ritual Lamenting in Ancient Mesopota- mia. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records 26. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Espak, Peeter. 2019. “The Transformation of the Sumerian Temple Hymns.” In Literary Change in Mesopotamia and Beyond and Routes and Travellers between East and West: Proceedings of the 2nd and 3rd Melammu Workshops, edited by Rocío Da Riva, Martin Lang and Sebastian Fink, 15–23. Melammu Workshops and Monographs 2. Münster: Zaphon.

Falkenstein, Adam. 1958. “Enḫedu’anna, die Tochter Sargons von Akkade.” Revue d’Assyriologie 52, no. 2: 129–31.

Farber-Flügge, Gertrude. 1973. Der Mythos “Inanna und Enki” unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Liste der me. Studia Pohl 10. Rome: Biblical Institute Press.

Farber, Gertrud. 1990. “me (ĝarza, parṣu).” Reallexikon der Assyriologie 7: 610–13.

Finkel, Irving L.; Taylor, Jonathan. 2015. Cuneiform. London: British Museum Press.

Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade: Inventing Empire in Ancient Mesopotamia. London: Routledge.

Foster, Benjamin R. 2019. “Authorship in Cuneiform Literature.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Literary Authorship, edited by Ingo Berensmeyer, Gert Buelens, and Marysa Demoor, 13–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Foster, Benjamin R.; and Foster, Karen Polinger. 2009. Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Frayne, Douglas. 1993. Sargonic and Gutian Periods, 2334–2113 BC. Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods 2. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. 1992. In the Wake of the Goddesses: Women, Culture, and the Biblical Transformation of Pagan Myth. New York: Free Press.

Gabbay, Uri. 2008. “The Akkadian Word for Third Gender: The kalû (gala) Once Again.” In Proceedings of the 51st Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, edited by R. D. Biggs, J. Myers, and M. T. Roth, 49–56. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 62. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Gabbay, Uri. 2014a. “The Balaĝ Instrument and Its Role in the Cult of Ancient Mesopotamia.” In Music in Antiquity: The Near East and the Mediterranean, edited by Joan Goodnick Westenholz, Yossi Maurey, and Edwin Seoussi, pp. 129-47. Yuval 7. Berlin: De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Gabbay, Uri. 2014b. Pacifying the Hearts of the Gods: Sumerian Emesal Prayers of the First Millen- nium BC. Heidelberger Emesal-Studien 1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Gadotti, Alhena. 2011. “Portraits of the Feminine in Sumerian Literature.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 131, no. 2: 195–206.

George, Andrew R. 1993. House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

George, Andrew R. 2005. “In Search of the é The Ancient Mesopotamian School in Literature and Reality.” In “An Experienced Scribe Who Neglects Nothing”: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Jacob Klein, edited by Yitschak Sefati, Pinhas Artzi, Chaim Cohen, Barry L. Eichler, and Victor A. Hurowitz, 127–37. Bethesda: CDL Press.

Glassner, Jean-Jacques. 2009. “En-hedu-ana, une femme auteure en pays de Sumer, au IIIe millenaire?” Topoi Suppléments 10: 219–31.

Glaz, Sarah. 2020. “Enheduanna: Princess, Priestess, Poet, and Mathematician.” The Mathematical Intelligencer 42: 31–46

Hallo, William W.; and van Dijk, J.J.A. 1968. The Exaltation of Innana. Yale Near Eastern Researches 3. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Halton, Charles. 2017. “Why Has No One Ever Heard of the World’s First Poet?” LitHub. Available at:

Halton, Charles; and Svärd, Saana. 2017. Women’s Writing of Ancient Mesopotamia: an Anthology of the Earliest Female Authors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hansen, Donald P. 2003. “Art of the Akkadian Dynasty.” In Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, edited by Joan Aruz and Ronald Wallenfels, 189–209. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Harris, Rivkah. 1991. “Inanna-Ishtar as Paradox and a Coincidence of Opposites.” History of Religions 30, no. 3: 261–78.

Heffron, Yaǧmur. 2016. “‘Inana/Ištar (goddess).” Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. Available at:

Helle, Sophus. 2018. “‘Only in Dress?’ Methodological Concerns Regarding Non-Binary Gender.” In Gender and Methodology in the Ancient Near East: Approaches from Assyriology and Beyond, edited by Stephanie Budin, Megan Cifarelli, Agnès Garcia-Ventura, and Adelina Millet Albà, 41–53. Barcino 10. Barcelona: Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona.

Helle, Sophus. 2019a. “The Birth of the Author: Co-Creating Authorship in Enheduana’s Exaltation.” Orbis Litterarum 75, no. 2: 55–72.

Helle, Sophus. 2019b. “Enheduana and the Invention of Authorship.” Authorship 8, no. 1. Available at:

Helle, Sophus. 2019c. “What Is an Author? Old Answers to a New Question.” Modern Language Quarterly 80, no. 2: 113–39.

Helle, Sophus. 2022a. “The Exaltation of Inana.” Available at:

Helle, Sophus. 2022b. “The Hymn to Inana.” Available at:

Helle, Sophus. 2023. Enheduana: The Complete Poems of the World’s First Author. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Hrůša, Ivan. 2015. Ancient Mesopotamian Religion: A Descriptive Introduction. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag.

Karahashi, Fumi. 2000. “Sumerian Compound Verbs with Body-Part Terms.” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago.

Keetman, Jan. 2010. “Das Ritual in Enḫeduanas Lied ‘Königin der zahlreichen Me.’” Altorientalische Forschungen 37, no. 1: 38–48.

Konstantopoulos, Gina, 2021. “The Many Lives of Enheduana: Identity, Authorship, and the ‘World’s First Poet.’” In Powerful Women in the Ancient World: Perception and (Self)Presentation; Proceedings of the 8th Melammu Workshop, Kassel, 30 January—1 February 2019, edited by Sebastian Fink and Kerstin Droß-Krüpe, 55–74. Melammu Workshops and Monographs 4. Münster: Zaphon.

Kramer, Samuel N. 1969. “A Hymnal Prayer of Enheduanna: The Adoration of Inanna in Ur.” In Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, edited by James B. Pritchard, 579–82. 3rd edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lambert, Wilfred G. 2001. “Ghost-writers?” Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires 2001, no. 3: 77, no. 83.

Leick, Gwendolyn. 1994. Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. London: Routledge.

Lion, Brigitte. 2011. “Literacy and Gender.” In The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Cul- ture, edited by Karen Radner and Eleanor Robson, 90–112. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Löhnert, Anne. 2011. “Manipulating the Gods: Lamenting in Context.” In The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Cultures, edited by Karen Radner and Eleanor Robson, 402–17. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McHale-Moore, Rhonda. 2000. “The Mystery of Enheduanna’s Disk.” Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 27: 69–74.

Meador, Betty De Shong. Inanna, Lady of Largest Heart: Poems of the Sumerian High Priestess Enheduanna. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.

Meador, Betty De Shong. Princess, Priestess, Poet: The Sumerian Temple Hymns of Enheduanna. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.

Michalowski, Piotr. 1996. “Sailing to Babylon, Reading the Dark Side of the Moon.” In The Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-First Century: The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference, edited by Jerrold S. Cooper and Glenn M. Schwartz, 177–93. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns.

Michalowski, Piotr. 1998. “Literature as a Source of Lexical Inspiration: Some Notes on a Hymn to the Goddess Inana.” In Written on Clay and Stone: Ancient Near Eastern Studies Presented to Krystyna Szarzynska, edited by Jan Braun, Krystyna Łyczkowska, Maciej Popko, and Piotr Steinkeller, 65–74. Warsaw: Agade.

Michalowski, Piotr. 2012. “Literacy, Schooling and the Transmission of Knowledge.” In Theory and Practice of Knowledge Transfer: Studies in School Education in the Ancient Near East and Beyond, edited by Wolfert S. van Egmond and Wilfred H. van Soldt, 39–57. PIHANS 121. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten.

Michalowski, Piotr. 2020a. “The Kingdom of Akkad in Contact with the World.” In The Oxford History of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, edited by Karen Radner, Nadine Moeller, and Daniel T. Potts, 686–764. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Michalowski, Piotr. 2020b. “Sumerian.” In A Companion to Ancient Near Eastern Languages, edited by Rebecca Hasselbach‐Andee, 83–105. Hoboken: Wiley.

Minamore, Bridget. 2017. “Lines of Resistance.” BBC Sounds. London: BBC. Available at:

Musawi, Muhsin Jasim. 2006. Reading Iraq: Culture and Power in Conflict. Library of Modern Middle East Studies 51. London: I. B. Tauris.

Postgate, Nicholas. 1992. Early Mesopotamia. Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. London: Routledge.

Pryke, Louise. 2017. Ishtar. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. London: Taylor and Francis.

Pryke, Louise M. 2019. “Hidden Women of History: Enheduanna, Princess, Priest- ess and the World’s First Known Author.” The Conversation. Available at: -princess-priestess-and-the-worlds-first-known-author-109185.

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Robson, Eleanor. 2001. “The Tablet House: A Scribal School in Old Babylonian Nippur.” Revue d’Assyriologie 93, no. 1: 39–66.

Schrakamp, Ingo. 2020. “The Kingdom of Akkad: A View from Within.” In The Oxford History of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, edited by Karen Radner, Nadine Moeller, and Daniel T. Potts, 612–85. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Seligson, Joelle, ed. Forthcoming. She who Wrote: Enheduanna and Women of Mesopotamia, ca. 3400–2000 BC. New York: Morgan Library and Museum.

Sjöberg, Åke W. 1975. “in-nin šà-gur4-ra: A Hymn to the Goddess Inanna by the en-Priestess Enḫeduanna.” Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 65, no. 2: 161–253.

Sjöberg, Åke W.; and Bergmann, Eugen S. J. 1969. The Collection of the Sumerian Temple Hymns. Texts from Cuneiform Sources 3. Locust Valley: J. J. Augustin.

Stol, Marten. 2016. Women in the Ancient Near East. Berlin: De Gruyter. Available at:

Suter, Claudia E. 2017. “On Images, Visibility, and Agency of Early Mesopotamian Royal Women.” In The First Ninety Years: A Sumerian Celebration in Honor of Miguel Civil, edited by Lluís Feliu, Fumi Karahashi, and Gonzalo Rubio, 337– 62. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records 12. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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Wagensonner, Klaus. 2020. “Between History and Fiction—Enheduana, the First Poet in World Literature.” In Women at the Dawn of History, edited by Klaus Wagensonner and Agnete W. Lassen, 38–45. New Haven: Yale Babylonian Collection.

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Westenholz, Joan Goodnick. 1989. “Enheduanna, En-Priestess, Hen of Nanna, Spouse of Nanna.” In Dumu-e2-dub-ba-a: Studies in Honor of Åke W. Sjöberg, edited by Hermann Behrens, Darlene Loding, and Martha Tobi Roth, 539–56. Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund 11. Philadelphia: Samuel Noah Kramer Fund.

Westenholz, Joan Goodnick. 2006. “Women of Religion in Mesopotamia: The High Priestess in the Temple.” Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies Journal 1: 31–44.

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